Zur Verfassungswidrigkeit des US-NPVIC und des Pre-Election Presidential Transition Act of 2010

Artikel II Sektion 1 § 2 der US-Constitution lautet:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

Die gesetzliche Bestimmung der Art und Weise der Ernennung der Elektoren ist damit dem jeweiligen Bundesstaat überlassen. Schon hier wird (durch das hervorgehobene thereof) deutlich, dass eine Konzertierung dieser Art und Weise durch interstaatlichen Pakt auf konstitutionelle Grenzen stößt, welche in der unterschiedlichen Bildung und sonstigen sozialen Konstitutionierung der Bevölkerungen der einzelnen Staaten liegen.

Erinnert sei hier an die in meinem Rechtsmittel vom 8. November 2016 herausgearbeitete, auf den Frieden von Paris (1783) zurückgehende völkerrechtliche Verpflichtung der USA, nur echte Repräsentanten regieren zu lassen, welche sich heute auch mit dem in der UN-Charta verankerten Selbstbestimmungsrecht der Völker deckt.

Sodann erfolgte 1866 das XIV Amendment zur US-Verfassung, welches da auszugsweise lautet:

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

Ganz offenkundig stellt diese Bestimmung keine Abänderung des vorzitierten Artikels II der Verfassung dar, indem sie sich etwa in die bundesstaatliche Gesetzgebeung einmischte: Vielmehr stellt sie, ohne dies zu bestimmen, lediglich auf die Eventualität ab, dass in Bundesstaaten eine solche direkte und allgemeine Wahl der Elektoren gesetzlich vorgesehen wäre.

Gleichwohl, und zwar diesmal tatsächlich in (verfassungswidriger) Einmengung in die bundesstaatliche Zuständigkeit, bestimmt der Presidential Transition Act of 1963, dass der von ihm verwendete Begriff des president-elect bzw. vice president-elect wie folgt definiert sei:

The terms „President-elect“ and „Vice-President-elect“ as used in this Act shall mean such persons as are the apparent successful candidates for the office of President and Vice President, respectively, as ascertained by the Administrator following the general elections held to determine the electors of President and Vice President in accordance with title 3, United States Code, sections 1 and 2.

Denn indem hier darauf abgestellt wird, dass zum einen allgemeine Wahlen stattzufinden hätten und diese überdies sogleich einen Quasi-Sieger (noch vor der Wahl durch die Elektoren) hervorbringe, ist gegen die zitierten Bestimmungen der US-Constitution!

Ebenediese Verfassungswidrigkeit führte offenbar zum Abschluss unter den US-Bundesstaaten, des National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, der auszugsweise lautet:

Article II—Right of the People in Member States to Vote for President and Vice President

Each member state shall conduct a statewide popular election for President and Vice President of the United States.

Article III—Manner of Appointing Presidential Electors in Member States

Prior to the time set by law for the meeting and voting by the presidential electors, the chief election official of each member state shall determine the number of votes for each presidential slate in each State of the United States and in the District of Columbia in which votes have been cast in a statewide popular election and shall add such votes together to produce a “national popular vote total” for each presidential slate.

The chief election official of each member state shall designate the presidential slate with the largest national popular vote total as the “national popular vote winner.”

The presidential elector certifying official of each member state shall certify the appointment in that official’s own state of the elector slate nominated in that state in association with the national popular vote winner.

At least six days before the day fixed by law for the meeting and voting by the presidential electors, each member state shall make a final determination of the number of popular votes cast in the state for each presidential slate and shall communicate an official statement of such determination within 24 hours to the chief election official of each other member state.

The chief election official of each member state shall treat as conclusive an official statement containing the number of popular votes in a state for each presidential slate made by the day established by federal law for making a state’s final determination conclusive as to the counting of electoral votes by Congress.

In event of a tie for the national popular vote winner, the presidential elector certifying official of each member state shall certify the appointment of the elector slate nominated in association with the presidential slate receiving the largest number of popular votes within that official’s own state.

If, for any reason, the number of presidential electors nominated in a member state in association with the national popular vote winner is less than or greater than that state’s number of electoral votes, the presidential candidate on the presidential slate that has been designated as the national popular vote winner shall have the power to nominate the presidential electors for that state and that state’s presidential elector certifying official shall certify the appointment of such nominees.

The chief election official of each member state shall immediately release to the public all vote counts or statements of votes as they are determined or obtained. This article shall govern the appointment of presidential electors in each member state in any year in which this agreement is, on July 20, in effect in states cumulatively possessing a majority of the electoral votes.

Hier wird also die allgemeine direkte Wahl der Elektoren gleichsam zur direktwahl des Präsidenten, was verfassungswidrig ist, wie ich bereits im folgenden Tweet dargelegt habe:

Desgleichen verfassungswidrig ist demnach aber auch der mit dem Amendment durch den Pre-Election Presidential Transition Act of 2010 in den oben zitierten Presidential Transition Act of 1963 eingefügte Begriff des eligible candidate, welcher dort definiert wird, wie folgt:

‘‘(4)(A) In this subsection, the term ‘eligible candidate’ means, with respect to any presidential election (as defined in section 9002(10) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986)—
‘‘(i) a candidate of a major party (as defined in section 9002(6) of such Code) for President or Vice-President of the United States; and
‘‘(ii) any other candidate who has been determined by the Administrator to be among the principal contenders for the general election to such offices.

Mit Administrator ist der Administrator of General Services gemeint, dem damit eine Machtfülle eingeräumt wird, die, zumal er vom Präsidenten mit Zustimmung des Senats bestellt wird, nur durch die präsidiale Kompetenz, die Qualifikation des president-elect nach dem XX. Amendment festzustellen, zu rechtfertigen ist, wie ich diese in meinem oben verlinkten Tweet erläutert habe.

Dass aber schon der von den Hauptparteien bestimmte wählbare Kandidat dem president-elect weitgehend gleichgesetzt wird, ist desgleichen verfassungswidrig, weil solche Macht der Hauptparteien in der US-Konstitution keine Deckung findet.

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